Artemisia

Artemisia absinthium (Wormwood)

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
The whole plant is used as antimalarial, in combination therapy with other chemical antimalarial drugs, as malaria parasites develop resistance to artemisinin (the antimalarial substance). Also, it has antipyretic, antiseptic, diuretic, emmenagogue and anthelmintic properties. It is recommended to stimulate the stomach and for the treatment of dyspepsia, stomach pain and liver failure. Finally, it is administered against anemia, pulmonary tuberculosis, arthritis, as well as abortifacient.

Method of Administration:
It is administered as a stomach tonic and appetizer in the form of a decoction (tea, a tablespoon of dried leaves and flowers boil in a cup of water, 2-3 times a day), infusion and tincture. The plant is grown for the isolation of artemisinin, with the aim of using it as an anthelmintic drug.

St. John’s Wort

Hypericum perforatum L.

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
Galen and Dioscorides also mention it as a diuretic, emmenagogue and hemostatic. In the US, hypericum is perhaps the most popular medicinal plant, and is used for mild to moderate depression as an alternative to the antidepressant Prozac, with the active ingredient fluoxetine. It is marketed in Europe under the brand name Ladose. It is also used as a antispasmodic and sleep enhancer in insomnia. Already in 1994 in Germany, prescriptions were prescribed for 20 million patients. In Montana, USA alone, 500,000 acres are now cultivated. The whole plant is used as an anti-inflammatory, astringent, healing, analgesic, antidiarrheal and diuretic. The infusion of the plant is given to treat dysentery, liver disease, chronic runny nose, neuralgia, anxiety and tension.

Method of Administration:
It is given as a skin healer in the form of botanical oil (St. John’s Wort oil) It can be used externally on wounds, burns, etc. As an antidepressant and tonic it is taken orally in the form of an infusion (15-20g of dried herb in 1lt boiling water for 5- 15min) and tincture (5-10 drops every night in children and 15-20 drops in adults, for 20 days).

Basil

Ocimum Basilicum L.

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
Indigenous plant of India, the basil has been grown in the Mediterranean for thousands of years. It was cultivated in Egypt. Basil drops were found in the sarcophagi of the pyramids. There are many references to the basilica by Aristotle, Theophrastus, Dioscorides, Galen, Pliny and Aetius. It reached Western Europe only in the 16th century. The whole plant is used as a spasmolytic of the digestive system, stomach tonic, emulsifier, diuretic and emollient. The tea from the leaves of the plant is administered to treat headaches, hysteria, anxiety and tension, while it also acts as a painkiller for arthritic and rheumatic pains. In folk medicine it is taken orally to treat fever, gastroenteritis, constipation, nausea, indigestion and sore throat.

Method of Administration:
It is used as a painkiller, sedative and stimulant in the form of an infusion (tea: a tablespoon of dried leaves in a cup of water, 2-3 cups a day). It is applied externally to the skin as a painkiller in the form of a poultice of fresh leaves.

Milk thistle

Silybum marianum

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
The tea of the plant is used as a cholagogue. It is widely recommended to protect the liver from infections, alcohol consumption and chemotherapy. It also helps treat hepatitis, jaundice, liver cirrhosis, runny nose and pleurisy. It is applied externally on the skin to treat psoriasis. Recent studies have shown its anti-cancer, neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects, which are mainly based on lowering cholesterol.

Method of Administration:
It is mainly given to protect the liver and treat various liver diseases in the form of an infusion (tea: a tablespoon of dried seeds or leaves boiled in a cup of water, 3 cups a day). It is also used in the form of tincture and plant extract.

Verbena

Cretan Verbena officinalis

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
The infusion (tea) of the leaves of the plant is used as a spasmolytic, appetizing, astringent, emmenagogue and tonic. It is suitable for the treatment of eye pain, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, menopausal disorders, anxiety and various disorders of the stomach and kidneys.

Method of Administration:
It is used as a spasmolytic, emmenagogue and astringent in the form of a decoction (tea: 10g of dried herb is boiled in 100ml of water, 2-3 cups a day).

Laurel Leaves

Laurus nobilis L.

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
It is used in the form of an infusion as an antirheumatic, antiseptic, diuretic, antiperspirant, antispasmodic and emmenagogue. It enhances the function of digestion and is taken orally to treat colic, indigestion, flatulence, anorexia, runny nose, cough and cold. It is applied externally to treat bruises, dandruff, hair loss, sprains, rheumatism and herpes. The plant is also used in veterinary medicine to fight lice and mites.

Method of Administration:
It is used as an expectorant, astringent and anti-inflammatory in the form of an infusion of dried leaves. It is applied to the skin in the form of essential oil, botanical oil and ointment.

Rosemary

Rosmarinus officinalis L.

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
It has tonic, antispasmodic and antiseptic properties and is taken orally to treat intestinal infections, diarrhea, colitis, flatulence, liver disorders and jaundice. It is also a circulatory stimulant as it increases blood flow in the vessels, but also an effective healer in mouth sores. It is given in the form of an infusion to treat the flu, colds, rheumatism and indigestion.

Method of Administration:
It is used as a tonic and antiseptic in the form of a decoction (tea, 20-30g of dried herb in 1lt of water, 3 times a day). It is used as a circulatory stimulant in the form of a tincture and as a tonic in the form of essential oil (30-40g of dried herb in 1lt of water and 20-25g of oil – 8-10 drops in the bath).

Dittany

Origanum dictamnus

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
It is used as an astringent, soothing mainly against stomach and intestinal pains, anthelmintic, antibacterial, diuretic and expectorant. It is also used to treat insomnia, severe menstruation, flu, colds and headaches. It is applied externally in the form of a poultice to treat inflammatory skin diseases, abscesses and skin ulcers.

Method of Administration:
It is given as a sedative, healing and astringent in the form of a decoction (tea, 10-15g of dried herb boiled in 500ml of water), tincture (15-20g of the herb in a 25% ethyl alcohol solution, 50-60ml per day) and infusion (5- 10g of dried herb in a cup of boiling water).

Equisetum

Equisetum arvense

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
It is used as a diuretic, hemostatic, healing and astringent. It is given as a source of salts (silica) to treat tuberculosis and to improve calcium absorption. In homeopathy it is given in the form of a tincture against cystitis and anuria, while in folk medicine it is used in the form of gargles to treat various oral diseases (astringent), but also as a hemostatic against nosebleeds and internal bleeding.

Method of Administration:
As an astringent and diuretic it is used in the form of an infusion (2 tablespoons of dried herb in a cup of boiling water – 3 times a day). In homeopathy it is used mainly in the form of a tincture (2-4ml, three times a day).

Summer Savory

Satureja hortensis

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
The whole plant is used as a digestive, expectorant, antidiarrheal, antiseptic, nervous system tonic and aphrodisiac. It is given in the form of a decoction (tea) to treat various gastrointestinal problems, colic, flatulence, gastroenteritis, indigestion, nausea and diarrhea. It is considered effective in treating bronchitis, sore throat and menstrual disorders. The aqueous extract of the plant is studied for possible anti-HIV-1 action. It is applied externally in the form of a poultice on the skin to fight insect bites and treat arthritis.

Method of Administration:
It is given as an expectorant, antiseptic and gastronomic in the form of a decoction (tea: a tablespoon of dried herb is boiled in a cup of water, 2-3 cups a day). It is applied to the skin in the form of a poultice of fresh plant.

Thyme

Thymus vulgaris

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
It has antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiperspirant, antitussive and expectorant properties. It is taken orally to treat laryngitis, bronchitis, productive and dry cough, pertussis and asthma. Due to its astringent action, it can be applied externally to disinfect infected skin wounds. It is also given in the form of a decoction to treat indigestion, gastritis, diarrhea and involuntary urination in children.

Method of Administration:
It is given as an expectorant, antiseptic and antitussive in the form of an infusion (tea, two tablespoons of dried herb in a cup of boiling water, 3 times a day). It is administered as a tonic for the digestive system and anti-inflammatory for external use in folk medicine in the form of tincture.

Calendula

Calendula officinalis

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
It has anti-inflammatory, healing, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, cholagogue, antiperspirant and emmenagogue properties. It is applied externally on the skin to treat various skin problems (injuries, abscesses, acne, psoriasis, eczema, itching). Also in varicose veins, sprains and varicose veins, as well as vaginal lavage. It is recommended in the form of a decoction (tea) for the treatment of gingivitis, stomatitis, conjunctivitis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, cholelithiasis, indigestion and gonococcal leukorrhea. Finally, in folk medicine it is considered an effective emmenagogue and helps in cases of delay and dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation).

Method of Administration:
It is used in the form of a decoction (tea: 5g of dried herb boiled in 100mL of water for 5-10min, 3 times a day). It is applied externally on the skin, as a cream, ointment and essential oil (5-10 drops in the bath water). Calendula tincture can be used to soak the patches in wounds, in the form of gargling in pharyngitis (1-2 tablespoons in half a glass of water), or diluted in liquid for vaginal lavage (2 tablespoons in half a liter of sterile water).

Cistus

Cistus creticus L.

Pharmacological actions-Applications:                                                                                                                                      The whole plant is administered in the form of herbal tea as expectorant, antitussive, antidiarrheal and emmenagogue. The herbal tea is recommended for the treatment of duodenal and stomach ulcers, dental pain, runny nose, diarrhea, as well as immune stimulant especially against several bacterial infections. In homeopathy the plant is used due to its particular antioxidant action to prevent heart diseases and to reduce stress and anxiety. Finally, it has anti-wrinkle and regenerating properties and it is used in the form of ointment in cosmetics and against various skin problems.

Method of Administration:                                                                                                                                                            The plant is administered as expectorant, antidiarrheal and immune stimulant in the form of herbal tea (a spoon of dried herb in a cup of boiled water, twice a day, once in the morning and once in the evening). Also, the herbal tea is used for its antioxidant properties, as it is three times stronger than green tea. It is applied externally to the skin as anti-inflammatory, anti-wrinkle and healing in the form of an ointment.

Lemon verbena

Aloysia triphylla

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
The whole plant has sedative, antipyretic, anticonvulsant, sedative, antiseptic and diuretic properties. It is recommended for the treatment of fever, common cold, asthma, dyspepsia, diarrhea and bleeding. It is applied externally to the skin in the form of poultice against neuralgia, hemorrhoids, varicose veins, sciatica, headache and earache. It is administered in the form of infusion against kidney stones and heartburn, as well to enhance body’s metabolism and to lose weight. The herbal tea is also used against insomnia caused by central nervous system fatigue. The essential oil has insecticide and bactericide actions.

Method of Administration:
It is adminstered in the form of herbal tea (a spoon of dried herb in a cup of boiling water for 5-10min, 2 times a day) and infusion (a spoon of dried herb in a cup of boiling water for 5-10min, three times a day). It is applied externally to the skin as astringent and soothing in the form of poultice.

agnus-castus

Vitex agnus-castus L.

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
The herbal extract is used to regulate the hormone’s balance, the menstruation cycle and premenstrual syndrome, as inhibits prolactin’s secretion and controls the ratio between progestogens and estrogens. Also, the whole plant has astringent, soothing, galaktagogo and diuretic properties. Even if further studies must be done, the plant is used for the treatment of infertility, prostatitis, the swelling of the testes and ovaries.

Method of Administration:
The plant is administered to regulate the hormonal balance in the form of herbal tea (0,5-1g of dried herb in a cup of boiled water, 3 times a day), tincture or tablets (one a day, 1g).

Malotira Mountain Tea

Siderites syriaca

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
The plant is recommended in the form of herbal tea made from the leaves as anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antihypertensive, antispasmodic, antibacterial, sedative and antioxidant. Also, it is administered to prevent anemia and osteoporosis. A lot of studies are conducted for the possible action of plant’s infusion against the proliferation of cancer cells. In traditional medicine the plant is used as sedative, hypnotic, for warming-up patients with colds, and also for the treatment of dyspepsia.

Method of Administration:
The plant is administered as sedative and immune stimulant for the treatment of common cold in the form of herbal tea (a quantity of dried leaves in boiled water, 4-5 cups a day)

Marjoram

Majorana hortensis

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
The leaves have antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, cholagogue, sweating, emmenagogue, expectorant, tonic, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. They are recommended for the treatment of respiratory infections (bronchitis, tonsillitis), cough, asthma, common cold, flu, fever, dyspepsia, stomach and menstruation’s disorders. They are applied externally to the skin against arthritis, muscle pain and edema. Finally, the herbal extract is used as gargling against toothache and gum diseases.

Method of Administration:
The plant is administered in the form of herbal tea (15g of dried leaves in 250mL of boiled water, 2-3 times a day).It is applied externally to the skin in the form of essential oil (oregano oil, 1: 2 parts of dried plant and oil base, e.g., olive oil).

Melissa

Melissa officinalis

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
The plant is administered in the form of infusion as digestive, diaphoretic, sedative, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory,antimicrobial and sedative. In folk medicine it is recommended for the treatment of stomach and duodenal ulcers, kidney and liver colic, dyspepsia and vomiting during pregnancy. Also, the herbal tea from the leaves may be used against depression and anxiety. It is applied externally to treat headaches, dental pain, edema and skin wounds. Recent studies suggest that the plant extract enhances the memory and can be effective against amnesia and Alzheimer’s disease.

Method of Administration:
The plant is administered against depression and anxiety in the form of infusion (4 spoons of dried herb in 1L of boiling water, up to four glasses daily). Also, it is administered for the treatment of gastric and hepatic disorders in the form of herbal tea (a spoon of dried herb in a glass of boiled water, 2-3 times a day).

Oregano

Origanum vulgare L.

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
The leaves have antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, cholagogue, sweating, emmenagogue, expectorant, tonic, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. They are recommended for the treatment of respiratory infections (bronchitis, tonsillitis), cough, asthma, common cold, flu, fever, dyspepsia, stomach and menstruation’s disorders. They are applied externally to the skin against arthritis, muscle pain and edema. Finally, the herbal extract is used as gargling against toothache and gum diseases.

Method of Administration:
The plant is administered in the form of herbal tea (15g of dried leaves in 250mL of boiled water, 2-3 times a day).It is applied externally to the skin in the form of essential oil (oregano oil, 1: 2 parts of dried plant and oil base, e.g., olive oil).

Ceterach

Ceterach officinarum D.C.

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
The whole plant is antitussive, sedative, antidiarrheal, anthelmintic and diuretic. It is taken orally for the treatment of various diseases of the urinary tract and mainly, in nephrolithiasis.

Method of Administration:
The plant is administered as herbal tea (6g of dried herb in a cup and a half of hot water, once a day) and as infusion (27g of dried herb in 3 cups of boiling water, half a cup twice a day in the morning and evening )

Taraxacum

Taraxacum officinale

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
The plant is administered in the form of herbal tea as cholagogue, tonic, diuretic, digestive, anti-inflammatory and antitussive. It is recommended for the treatment of gallstones, constipation, dyspepsia, chronic arthritis and rheumatic diseases. Also, it is applied externally in the form of infusion against chronic dermatitis, eczema, acne, hives (urticaria), wounds and warts.

Method of Administration:
The plant is administered as laxative and diuretic in the form of herbal tea (10-15g of dried root in a cup of boiled water, 3 times a day) and tincture (1: 5 parts of the dried root and ethyl alcohol 30%, 30 to 60 drops, three times a day). It is applied externally to the skin in the form of infusion (made from the dried root, three times a day)

Teucrium

Teucrium polium

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
The whole plant is used as healing, antipyretic, hypotensive, insect repellent, tonic and diuretic. It is administered in the form of herbal tea for the treatment of runny nose, chronic bronchitis, pharyngitis, flu, dyspepsia and arthritis. The species of Teucrium polium and Teucrium chamaedrys have similar properties, while the first one is more effective in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers. Due to its sudorific properties the plant is recommended against fever.

Method of Administration:
The plant is administered as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer in the form of herbal tea (1-2 spoons of dried herb in a cup of boiled water, 2-3 times daily)

Nettle

Urtica Dioica L.

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
The whole plant has anti-asthmatic, antirheumatic, anti-seborrheic, astringent, diuretic galaktagogo, haemostatic and hypoglycaemic properties. It is recommended in the form of herbal tea against arthritis, asthma, urinary bladder infections, bronchitis, gingivitis, gout, kidney stones, laryngitis, multiple sclerosis, sciatica and tendinitis. It is applied externally against oily hair, dandruff, eczema, skin irritation and minor injuries. The root has diuretic action and it is administered for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and other prostate problems. Also it is used in the form of infusion for the treatment of anemia, menstruation, hemorrhoids and allergic symptoms.

Method of Administration:
The plant is administered in the form of herbal tea (a spoon of dried herb in a cup of boiled water, up to 3 times a day) and infusion (a spoon of dried herb in a cup of boiling water for 15min, 2-3 times a day). It is applied externally to the skin in the form of poultice and lotion, which is applied to the scalp.

CRETAN Sage

Salvia Triloba

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
The herbal tea made from the leaves has tonic, antidiarrheal, anti-bacterial, antiseptic, antispasmodic and cardial properties. It is administered for the treatment of injuries, aphthous, pharyngitis and gingivitis, while due to its estrogen action is recommended against amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea and leucorrhoea. Also, the whole plant has neurotonic properties and it is used against nervous disorders, depression, vertigo, neuralgia and to improve memory (sharpness). Finally, plant’s infusion is applied externally to the skin against acne, infections, wounds, lesions, alopecia and muscle cramps.

Method of Administration:
The plant is administered as astringent and tonic in the form of herbal tea (10g of dried leaves in 100mL of boiled water, 2-3 times a day). Also, it is administered as neurotonic in the form of infusion (10g of dried leaves in 100mL of boiled water, 2-3 times daily), while it is applied externally to the skin as astringent in the form of skin washes (5g of dried leaves in 100mL of hot water).

Penny Royal (wild mint)

Cretan Penny Royal

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
The tea of the leaves of the plant is used to treat colds, coughs, dysmenorrhea, dizziness, insomnia, and sore throats. It has expectorant, antitumor, anticonvulsant, anti-arthritic, antirheumatic, anticonvulsant, diuretic, antidiarrheal, suicidal, antispasmodic, anesthetic. It is also thought to promote menstruation. It is also suitable for smokers to clean the lungs.

Method of Administration:
Administered in the form of beverage (tea: one teaspoon of dry herb boiling in a cup of water, up to 2 times a day) and infusion (one teaspoon of dry herb was immersed in boiling water for 10min, 2 times daily).

We inhale the vapors when we have a stuffy nose and drink iced teas, which, despite being sweating, cool us down. In combination with lemon verbena, melissa, hibiscus and licorice, it helps in the elimination of retained fluids and in the diet. Tea with grated ginger helps with indigestion.

chamomile

Matricaria chamomilla

Pharmacological actions-Applications:
The whole plant has anti-inflammatory, healing, soothing and bacteriostatic properties. It is recommended for the treatment of dermatitis, eczema, conjunctivitis and epidermolysis bullosa (EB). Nowadays, the plant’s extract is used mainly as a component in cosmetics and hair shampoos, and as a mild sedative for the relief of insomnia and stress.

Method of Administration:
The plant is administered on eyes and against insomnia in the form of tincture (1: 5 parts of dried herb in ethyl alcohol 70%, 2-3 drops, 3-4 times a day), herbal tea (a spoon of dried herb in 150ml of boiled water, as body cleanser) and powder (3-4g of dried herb in 150g of water). It is also administered in the form of ointment, poultice, massage oil, shampoo and lotion against skin eczema.

Warning:
It is not recommended to use herbal preparations without informing the treating doctor or pharmacist. Substances that may interact with the medication the patient is already taking may neutralize their therapeutic effect or cause toxicity. They can also aggravate further impaired vital functions that endanger the patient’s health and life.